Meaning and History of Indonesian Batik Art

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Batik is writing an image on any media to form a style and art .
According to terms of the language itself Batik originated from the Javanese amba , meaning to write and point . The word batik refers to fabric with a pattern generated by the material the night ( wax) is applied to the fabric , so that resist the entry of dye ( dye ) , or in English is called ” wax – resist dyeing ” .
Awanzo BlogsMenurut batik hereditary history of our ancient ancestors said that batik ( batik making ) is a skill that later became a livelihood for adolescent and adult women at that time . At this time the condition of making batik is still on the level of manual ( hand ) or referred to as canthing . More times before finally entering the modern discovery of stamp batik making with media or machinery . For media use stamp batik making is possible roles of men plunge to participate in it .
For media batik fabric in the manufacturing process , there are several steps that must be done in batik making , including :
1 . Cutting raw material ( mori ) as needed .
2 . Mengetel : removes starch from mori mori by wetting with a solution : peanut oil , soda ash , tipol and water. Then mori diuleni after average diuleni sun dried and then dried again and again . This process is repeated until three weeks ago in the old wash thoroughly . This process so that the dye can seep into the fabric fibers perfectly .
3 . Nglengreng : Drawing directly on the fabric .
4 . Isen, Isen : give variation to the ornament ( pattern ) which has been in lengreng .
5 . Nembok : close ( ngeblok ) the base fabric that does not need to be colored .
6 . Ngobat : Coloring batik that has been bricked by means immersed in a dye solution
.
7 . Nglorod : Removing wax by boiling in boiling water ( finishing ) .
8 . Washing: after the wax off of fabric , then washed thoroughly and then dried .

 

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According to sejarahseni Indonesian culture, especially in the field of batik say that there are some opinions that developed the origin of Indonesian batik
Judging from the History of Culture
Prof . Dr. . R.M. Sutjipto Wirjosuparta stated that prior to the entry of Indian culture Indonesian nation has known techniques to create a batik cloth .
Aspects of Design Batik And Loax -resist process tehnique
Prof . Dr. . Alfred Steinmann argues that :
1 . There has been a kind of batik in Japan on Narayang dynasty called Ro – Kechr , in China in the Tang dynasty , in Bangkok and Turkestan Timur.Design batik from these areas are generally patterned geometric , Indonesian batik are more variations. Batik from South India ( new start was made in 1516 in Palekat and Gujarat ) is a type of wax batik painting popularly known as batik Palekat . Indian batik development peaked in 17-19 century .
2 . Regions in Indonesia are not affected Indian culture , there are also batik production , for example in Toraja , Sulawesi , Papua and Sumatra .
3 . There is no equation Indonesian batik ornaments with ornament batik India . For example : in India there is no tumpal , tree of life , caruda , and Isen, Isen cece and shredded . Both in terms of the history of Prof . M. And Prof. Yamin . Dr. . R.M. Sutjipto Wirjosuparta , argued that the batik in Indonesia has been around since the time of Srivijaya , the Chinese Sung Dynasty or Tang ( age 7-9 ) .

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Batik -producing cities , among others : Pekalongan , Solo , Yogyakarta , Lasem , Banyumas , Purbalingga , Surakarta , Cirebon , Tasikmalaya , Tulunggagung , Ponorogo , Jakarta , Tegal , Indramayu , Kudat, Garut , Kebumen , Purworejo , Klaten , Boyolali , Sidoarjo , Mojokerto , Gresik , Holy , and Winton .
History of batik is expected to begin in prehistoric times in the form of prabatik and achieving results in the time course of development of Hindu . According to the time of the Hindu culture of environmental art is the art of batik artwork Palace . With standard tradition continued in the Islamic era . Results that have been achieved in the days of Hindu , both technically and aesthetically , in the days of Islam developed and updated with new elements .
History of batik in Indonesia is closely linked with the development of the Majapahit kingdom and the spread of Islam in Java . In some records , the development of batik is mostly done in times of Mataram kingdom , then in the future work of Solo and Yogyakarta .
So this batik art in Indonesia has been known since the time of Majapahit work and growing the kingdom and the subsequent kings . The start spreading this batik art belongs to the people of Indonesia and Java in particular tribe is after the end of the eighteenth century or early nineteenth century . Produced batik batik is all until the early twentieth century and printed batik is known only after the world war unity out or around 1920 . The terms of the spread of Islam . Many areas in Java batik centers are areas Batik students and later became a tool of economic perjaungan by Muslim traders figures against the Dutch economy .
Batik art is art image on the fabric for clothing that became one of the cultural keluaga Indonesian kings of old. Initially batik is done only limited in the palace alone and proceeds to dress the king and family and his followers . Because many of the followers of the king who lived outside the palace , the art of batik was brought by them out palace and worked in place of each .
Long batik art was imitated by the people nearest and subsequently expanded into the work of women in the household to fill his spare time . Furthermore , batik clothes that used only the royal family , then became a popular folk clothes , both women and men . White fabric that is used when it is the result of homespun .
Medium coloring materials used consist of plants native to Indonesia who made ​​himself among others of : noni tree , tall , soga , indigo , and materials made ​​from soda ash soda , as well as salts made ​​from tanahlumpur .
Majapahit
Batik has become a culture in which the royal Majahit , pat the area traced in Mojokerto and Tulong Court . Mojoketo is an area that is closely connected with Majapahit kingdom during the first and origin of the name have anything to do with Majapahit Majokerto . Relation to the development of original batik Majapahit Agung is growing in Tulung history of batik developments in this area , can be extracted from the relic in the age of the Majapahit kingdom . At that time the area vBulletin partly composed of swamp in the history of the area known as Bonorowo , which at the time of Majapahit bekembangnya area was ruled by a Duke benama Kalang , and unwilling to submit to the kingdom of Majapahit .
Told that the police action launched by Majapahati , Duke Kalang supposedly killed in the fighting around the village are now reportedly named Kalangbret . Thus the army officers and keluara Majapahit kingdom who settled and lived in the region that is now named Bonorowo or vBulletin , among others also bring original art to make batik .
Batik in Mojokerto area now contained in Kwali , Kirkcaldy , Betero and Sidomulyo . Outside the Mojokerto regency is in Jombang . At the end of the nineteenth century there were several people known batik in Mojokerto , the materials used at that time white cloth woven by himself and drugs from soga jambal batik , noni , indigo tom , height and so on .
Drugs known abroad the new postwar world unity being sold by Chinese traders in Mojokerto . Printed batik is known along with the entry of drugs from abroad batik . Cap made ​​in Bangkil and entrepreneurs can buy batik Mojokerto, Sidoarjo Porong market , this Porong Market before the economic crisis the world is known as a bustling market , where the results of production and Jetis Sidoarjo batik Kedungcangkring lot sold . Time of economic crisis , batik entrepreneurs participate Mojoketo paralyzed , because most entrepreneurs small business. Pembatikan events arising after the crisis back to Japan to Indonesia , and the time of the Japanese occupation of batik activities paralyzed again . Pembatikan activity reappears after the revolution which has become a regional Mojokerto occupation .
Characteristic of batik Kalangbret of Mojokerto is almost equal to the output of batik – batik of Yogyakarta , which is essentially its pattern of white and light brown color and dark blue . Are known since more than a century ago where Majan and Simo batik village . The village also has a history as a relic from the days of Prince Diponegoro war in 1825 .
Although batik is known since antiquity , but the development of Batik Majapahait began to spread rapidly since the area of Central Java Surakarta and Yogyakata , in the era of the kingdom in this area . It appears that the development of batik in Mojokerto and subsequent Supreme Tulung more dipenagruhi Solo and Yogyakarta batik style .
In the wake of the clash between the Dutch colonial army with troops prince Diponegoro then most of Kyai Mojo troops withdrew towards the east and until now the Majan . Since Dutch colonial times up to the time of independence the village of village status Merdikan Majan ( Special Region ) , and the village head of a priest whose status Uirun – temurun.Pembuatan Majan Batik is an instinct ( relic ) of the art of making batik Diponegoro war era .
Babaran color Majan and Simo batik is unique because babarannya bright red color ( of skin Noni ) and other colors of the tom . As a batik Setra since time immemorial village area is also famous Sembung , the batik entrepreneurs mostly from Sala that vBulletin came in at the end of XIX century . Only now there are still some families who settled batik from Sala Sembung area . Aside from places proficiency level are also areas of batik in Psychology and also there are some in Kediri , but the nature of most batik craft and household babarannya batik .
The spread of Islamic era
History of batik in other areas of East Java is in Ponorogo , whose story is related to the spread of Islam in this region . History of Batik . Mentioned problem areas Ponorogo batik art is closely connected with the development of Islamic religion and kingdoms first. That said , in Batoro Katong area , there is a descendant of the Majapahit empire named Raden Raden Patah sister of the Katong . Batoro Katong is what brought Islam to Ponorogo and petilasan that there now is a mosque Patihan Wetan area .
Selanjutanya developments , in Ponorogo , in the area there is a boarding school Tegalsari that nurtured Kyai Hasan Basri or known as Kyai Agung Tegalsari . This Tegalsari pesantren teach religion other than Islam also teaches constitutional sciences , sciences and literature of war . A disciple of the famous literary field is Raden Tegalsari Ronggowarsito . Kyai Hasan Basri was taken into law by the king Kraton Solo.
At that time the art of batik was limited in the palace . Therefore Solo palace daughter became the wife of Kyai Hasan Basri then brought to Tegalsari and followed by escort – escorts . besides that there are many families learn dipesantren the court of Solo . This event is to bring art out of the palace bafik toward Ponorogo . Young people who are educated in this Tegalsari when it came out , the community will donate his batik dharma in areas kepamongan and religion .
Long batik areas that we can see now is that Kepatihan Wetan Kauman area now and from here spread to the villages Ronowijoyo , Mangunsuman , Kertosari , Setono , Cokromenggalan , Duchy , Nologaten , Bangunsari , force- , and Ngunut Banyudono . At that time the drugs used in the batik is made ​​in their own country of timber , among others ; tom tree , noni , high wood . While homemade kainputihnyajugamemakai material of woven carrying. Bam import white cloth known in Indonesia about the end of the 19th century .
Batik -making in the new Ponorogo known after the first world war brought on by a Chinaman named Kwee Seng from Banyumas . Regional Ponorogo early 20th century in the famous batik indigo coloring that does not fade and that is why entrepreneurs from Banyumas and Solo batik provide employment to many entrepreneurs in Ponorogo batik . As a result of the familiar printed batik production tops Ponorogo after World War until the outbreak of the Second World War with the famous batik is batik cap rough blue mori . Rough Ponorogo batik market became known throughout Indonesia .
Solo and Yogyakarta Batik
Of work – in Solo and Yogyakarta royal sekitamya 17.18 and 19 centuries , batik then widespread , particularly in the area of ​​Java. Batik initially just a hobby of the royal family in the ornate through clothing . But subsequent developments , community batik pleh perdagamgan developed into a commodity .
Solo Batik is famous for its style and its traditional batik pattern in the stamp and in the process of batik he wrote . The materials used for staining still remains a lot of use of domestic materials such as Java soga already known since the first. The pattern remained among others, famous and Sidoluruh Sidomukti .
While the origins of batik Yogyakarta area known since the kingdom of Mataram to -I with a Panembahan Senopati any raj . The first area is the village of batik Plered . Batik at that time confined within the royal family is done by the women helpers queen . From here batik work extends the first trap on the other the wife of the royal family of courtiers and soldiers . At the official ceremony of the royal family empire both men and women wear clothes with batik and striated kombonasi . Therefore, this kingdom received a visit from the people and the people interested in the clothes worn by the royal family and imitated by the people and finally meluaslah batik out of the palace walls .
As a result of the war between the ancient time kings of the family as well as between the Dutch colonial time ago , so many royal families who were displaced and settled in areas of new inter alia to Banyumas , Pekalongan , and stricken East Ponorogo , vBulletin and sebagainy a. Meluasny a local batik to the stricken areas , according to the historical development of Indonesian struggle began the 18th century . Royal families who were displaced is that developed all over the island of Java batik existing and evolving according to the nature and the new area .
Diponegoro war against the Netherlands , urged the prince and his family and his followers had to leave the area of the kingdom. They then spread towards the East and the West . Then in the new areas that the family and followers of Prince Diponegoro to develop batik .
East to Solo and Yogyakarta batik batik improve the existing pattern in Mojokerto and Tulong Court . It also spread to Gresik , Surabaya and Madura . Looking westward bang developing batik in Banyumas , Pekalongan , Tegal , Cirebon .
The development of Batik in Other Cities
Development of batik in Banyumas centered in the area Sokaraja taken by the followers of the Prince Diponegero after Selesa – inya war in 1830 , their most – ap menet Banyumas area . Followers were known at that time and he was Najendra develop batik dyed in Sokaraja . Materials used mori homespun results and drugs used color additives tom tree , pace and noni trees that gives the red color yellow artificiality .
Eventually Sokaraja batik spread to the people and at the end of XIX century is directly related to the area of Solo batik and Ponorogo . Areas in Banyumas batik has been known since long ago with motifs and colors in particular and now called batik Banyumas . After the world war started batik unity is also done by China in addition to their trade batik material . .
Similar to batik in Pekalongan . The followers of Prince Diponegoro who settled in this area then develop sekitara batik business in this coastal area , which is not only in their own area of ​​Pekalongan , batik grew rapidly in Buawaran , Pekajangan and Wonopringgo . The existence of batik in these areas almost simultaneously with batik other areas is about XIX century . Batik development in areas outside of Yogyakarta and Solo apart is closely connected with the history of the development of the kingdom of Yogyakarta and Solo.
Widespread batik out of the palace after the end of the Diponegoro war and the royal family moved many stricken areas outside Yogya and Solo because it did not want its partnership with the colonial government . The royal family brings new followers was stricken on the ground and continued batik craft and then into work for a living .
Batik style in this new area is also adapted to the circumstances surrounding area . Pekalongan in terms of the process and designya much influenced by batik of Demak . Until the early twentieth century known batik process batik is the morinya materials domestically as well as most imports . After the world war a new unity known batik fabrication and use of foreign drugs made ​​in Germany and the UK .
At the beginning of the 20th century, first made known to produce Pekajangan is weaving the yarn spun himself stagen and simply . In recent years new known batik is done by the people who worked the weaving sector . Growth and more rapid development of batik weaving stagen and never sugar factory workers in Wonopringgo and Tirto ran into batik companies , because wages are higher than the sugar factory .
Tegal batik being recognized at the end of the nineteenth century and that the time used homemade taken from plants : pace / noni , indigo , soga wood and homespun fabric . Tegal batik was first color is Sogan and babaran gray after a known indigo plant , and then increased to a red – blue color . Tegal batik market when it’s already out of the region such as West Java taken by the entrepreneurs in the foot and they are the ones who developed the historically batik in Tasik and Kudat as well as other immigrants from the cities of Central Javanese batik .
In the early twentieth century was known mori import and import of new drugs known postwar world unity . Batik entrepreneurs in Tegal mostly weak in capital and raw materials obtained from the Pekalongan and with credit and batik are sold in China that provides the raw material of credit . Time of economic crisis Tegal batik – batik actively involved flagging and new back about 1934 to the beginning of the second world war . Time Japan entered dead again batik activities .
Thus pila Purworedjo history of batik in conjunction with the presence of batik in Kebumen which came from Yogyakarta around XI century . Batik developments in Purworedjo than in Kebumen faster in Kebumen . Similarly, the same production Yogya and other Banyumas .
Whereas in Bayat , Klaten District Tembayat Kebumen – that is located approximately 21 km east of the town of Klaten . Bayat is a village located at the foot of the mountain but the land barren and minuses . These areas include environmental Surakarta and Klaten regency and history of batik here certainly closely connected with the history of the Surakarta royal palace in past . Bayat Village is now a pertilasan which can be visited by people in certain times of the tomb of Sunan Bayat on the mountain Jabarkat . So Bayat batik village has existed since the time of first job . Batik entrepreneurs in Bayat had most of handicrafts and batik workers in Solo .
While batik in Kebumen known around the beginning of the nineteenth century brought by immigrants from Yogya in order propagation of Islam , among others, that are known are: PenghuluNusjaf . He is a developing batik in the first place settled Kebumen and is the eastern Lukolo time now and there are also relics of the mosque over his business . Kebumen first batik process called teng – brother or next and last was the last process is done in Banyumas / Solo. Around the beginning of XX century pattern used to make turmeric capnya made ​​of wood . Kebumen motives are : trees , artificial bird . Other materials used are trees pace , kemudu and indigo tom .
Use of drugs imported in Kebumen known around 1920 that was introduced by Bank Rakyat Indonesia officials who finally left the homemade ingredients , as it saves time . Usage cap of known copper circa 1930 brought by Purnomo of Yogyakarta . Area is batik village in Kebumen : Watugarut , Tanurekso that many and there are several other villages .
Seen with relics of the present and the stories passed down from earlier , the estimated area known since the time of Tasikmalaya batik heritage Tarumanagara where they are now is the number of trees there are useful Tarum obtained un – tuk that time batik making . Heritage village which still exists today it is the crude batik : batik handicraft famous Wurug , Sukapura , Mangunraja , Maronjaya and Tasikmalaya city .
Formerly the center of government and the village is famous crowd Sukapura , Indihiang which lies just off the town of Tasikmalaya now . About the end of the seventeenth century and early eighteenth century a result of the war between the kingdoms in Central Java , many of the residents of the area : Tegal , Pekalongan , Ba – nyumas and Holy stricken wander west and settled in Kudat and Tasikmalaya . Most of them are batik entrepreneurs area and heading towards the West while trade batik . With the arrival of new residents , both wearing pembutan Be known hereafter Soga who came from Central Java . Tasikmalaya batik production now is a mix of original batik Pekalongan , Tegal , Banyumas , Holy various patterns and colors .
Batik is known around Kudat XIX century after the completion of the Diponegoro war , where followers of Diponegoro much left Yogyakarta , heading south . Some have settled Banyumas areas and some have proceeded to the south and settled in Kudat and Tasikmalaya now . They are gone down with a keluargany and settle into a new place and the population continues to live and work procedures . Some of them are experts in the craft of batik as household work for women . Eventually this work could be developed on the surrounding residents due to daily life or family relations . The materials used for the result of homespun fabric and paint materials made ​​from trees such as noni , tom tree , and so on .
Kudat batik motif result is a mixture of batik in Central Java and its own regional influence , especially motifs and colors scrape . Until the early twentieth century batik in Kudat growing little by little , of his own needs into market production . Being in the area of ​​Cirebon batik there kaintannya with aerah kingdoms , namely Kanoman , Kasepuahn and Keprabonan . The main source of batik Cirebon , the case is the same as in Yogyakarta and Solo. Batik appears the palace , and carried out by the courtiers who resides outside the palace . Ancient kings delighted with the paintings and prior known cotton yarn , the painting was placed on palm leaves . It happened around the XIII century . It has something to do with batik motifs on the fabrics . Characteristic of batik Cirebonan large part motivated by images of forests and wildlife symbol . While the sea motif because the nature of thought influenced by China , where the sultanate of Cirebon editing the first ever Chinese princess . Sementra Cirebonan pictorial batik garuda as influenced by Yogya and Solo batik motifs .
By UNESCO’s recognition of Indonesian Batik
On October 2, 2009 , the United Nations agencies in the field of education and culture ( UNESCO ) recognized batik as an Indonesian national culture results . World finally recognize batik is one of the heritage of mankind is generated by the nation of Indonesia.
UNESCO recognition is given to the reasons for the Government and people of Indonesia had committed as many concrete steps to protect and preserve batik generation to generation . And also the diversity of batik in Indonesia who possess a lot of deep philosophical meaning .

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