Batik Terengganu

 
Batik merupakan salah satu warisan seni kraftangan negeri Terengganu. Saya pernah ditugaskan untuk menerbitkan video Seni Pembuatan Batik bagi Bahagian Teknologi Pendidikan Negeri Terengganu pada 2-3 tahun lepas. Lokasi yang saya pilih ialah Pasar Payang dan WANISMA Kg Ladang, Nor Arfa Batik, Chendering. Nak terbitkan video sebenarnya perlu ada rujukan dan kajian terlebih dahulu…
Jika tuan/puan berminat dengan seni pembuatan batik, anda boleh melihat sendiri proses pembuatannya di Nor Arfa Craf Complex (NACC) atau WANISMA Batik dan Tembaga. Selain dari dua tempat tadi, anda juga boleh membelinya di Pasar Besar Kedai Payang yang sememangnya banyak pilihan. Hari ini saya nak bagi info tentang batik. Disini saya utarakan satu artikel yang saya baca dari Blog SENI ARTizza tentang sejarah  dan Proses Pembuatan Batik.
Sejarah
Batik merupakan satu bidang kraftangan yang unggul di Malaysia. Sejak abad ke 15 Masihi lagi manusia telah menemui kaedah pembuatan batik secara tradisional. Pada masa dahulu, masyarakat Melayu menggunakan ubi kentang sebagai alat pengecap tetapi kini kain batik telah diusahakan dengan menggunakan alat-alat moden. Batik mula diperkenalkan di negara kita khususnya di negeri Kelantan sejak tahun 1910 lagi. Batik berasal dari Indonesia dan terbit dari perkataan Jawa ‘tik’ yang bermaksud menitik atau menulis titik-titik. Ambatik pula bermaksud melukis, menulis, mewarna atau menitik. Di alam Melayu, sejenis batik yang dipanggil Batik Pelangi telah diperkenalkan sejak tahun 1770-an lagi. Di Malaysia kebanyakan kilang perusahaan batik banyak terdapat di Terengganu.
Motif
Motif adalah corak-corak hiasan yang digunakan dalam proses melukis atau menerap batik. Bentuk-bentuk motif batik dihasilkan dalam dua bentuk utama iaitu Motif Organik dan Motif Geometrik. Motif Organik berunsurkan alam semulajadi seperti awan larat, tumbuh-tumbuhan, bunga-bungaan, dan haiwan.
Rupabentuk Kain Batik Sarung
 Pucuk Rebung                               Corak Ayam
Corak Siput
Contoh Motif Organik:
  • Motif Ayam
  • Motif Bunga Buluh
  • Motif Bunga Kerak Nasi
  • Motif Bunga Kotak Bercampur
  • Motif Bunga Orkid
  • Motif Bunga Raya
  • Motif Daun Sireh
Contoh Motif Geometrik:
  •  Motif Pucuk Rebung
  •  Motif Bunga Kotak Bercampur
Corak
Corak kain batik bermaksud bagaimana motif-motif yang dipilih dicorakkan di atas kain batik tersebut.
Antara corak-corak yang sering digunakan.
  • Corak Berdiri
  • Corak Jalur
  • Corak Melintang
  • Corak Menyeluruh
  • Corak Menyerong
  • Corak Tompok-tompok
  • Corak Ulangan Batu-bata
  • Corak Ulangan/Selang seli
Proses Membuat
Alatan yang biasanya digunakan untuk membuat batik.
  • Blok Penerap
  • Campuran lilin
  • Kain
  • Pencelup
  • Sebuah Meja
Kain benang kapas berwarna putih merupakan yang sesuai untuk membuat batik. Selepas diterap dengan lilin pertama, ia akan dicelup dengan warna yang gelap sedikit. Setelah itu, ia akan diterap untuk kali kedua dan kemudian dicelup dengan warna yang lebih gelap. Proses ini akan diteruskan hingga habis. Kain ini akan direbus dalam air yang mengandungi soda. Apabila direbus, warna-warna yang berlainan akan kelihatan. Kain batik ini kemudiannya akan dijemur hingga kering. Kain-kain batik yang sudah kering, akan digosok, dilipat dan dibungkus untuk dipasarkan.
Penjenisan Kain Batik
Batik Blok
Kain putih akan diterapkan dengan corak batik yang menggunakan blok corak. Blok corak diperbuat daripada kayu atau logam. Proses ini dilakukan berulang-ulang dengan mengikut susunan yang tertentu sehinggalah selesai. Di mana blok itu telah dicelupkan terlebih dahulu ke dalam pewarna sebelum ditekapkan di atas kain tersebut.
Batik Conteng

Alat canting digunakan bagi melakar corak batik dengan lilin panas di atas kain putih. Setelah kerja-kerja melakar selesai, proses mewarna mengikut kesesuaian corak dilakukan dengan menggunakan berus cat, dimana bahagian-bahagian yang terkena lilin itu tidak akan meninggalkan kesan warna apabila proses mematikan warna di lakukan. Lilin akan cair dan tanggal menjadikan bahagian-bahagian ini berwarna putih sebagai benteng.
Batik Skrin
Batik skrin ini tidak kurang hebatnya jika dibandingkan dengan batik blok dan conteng. Hanya kaedah melakar corak dan cara menerapkan warna sahaja yang berbeza. Corak batik dibentuk di atas skrin yang diperbuat daripada kain polyster yang berpengidang. Skrin dilekapkan di atas kain putih, proses pewarnaan dengan melalukan warna di atas corak tadi dengan menggunakan sekuji. Cara begini akan diulang beberapa kali dengan corak yang berlainan untuk mendapatkan corak batik yang lengkap. Ini disebabkan satu skrin untuk satu warna sahaja.

Gambar Batik

Sejarah Batik Semarang

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DALAM upaya memperkuat identitas dan kepribadian bangsa, banyak daerah di Indonesia telah mendeklarasikan budaya melalui media batik. Misalnya batik Pekalongan, batik Demak, batik Kudus, batik Rembang, batik Lasem, batik Sragen, batik Banyumas, batik Jogya, batik Solo, dan sebagainya.

Namun, batik Semarang masih kurang pamor dibandingkan dengan batik-batik yang ada di wilayah Jawa Tengah dan Yogyakarta. Padahal, Semarang memiliki warisan budaya batik yang telah mengalami kristalisasi nilai-nilai serta ciri-ciri khas yang unik.

Batik Semarang diproduksi oleh para pengrajin di Kampung Batik, Kelurahan Bubakan, Kecamatan Mijen, Semarang. Konon batik Semarang pernah “melejit” sebagai salah satu kekayaan budaya Indonesia. Namun saat itu banyak pengrajinnya yang hijrah ke Klaten, Solo, dan daerah-daerah di sekitarnya. Karena itu, pengrajin batik Semarang sangat sedikit.

Meski jumlahnya terbatas, batik Semarang masih dilestarikan oleh beberapa pengrajinnya. Salah satu pengrajin batik yang tetap eksis mempertahankan warisan budaya tersebut ialah Umi S Adi Susilo.

Batik yang bertajuk Semarang 16 ini yang menjadi material utama 13 desainer terkemuka Indonesia yang menggelar fashion show pada acara HUT ke-461 Semarang yang perayaannya jatuh pada 2 Mei 2008.

Menurut Ketua Umum Asosiasi Perancang dan Pengusaha Mode Indonesia (APPMI), Taruna K Kusmayadi, corak dan motif yang terdapat pada batik Semarang cukup unik dan tidak kalah dengan batik-batik yang sudah populer selama ini. Selain itu, warna yang tersemburat pada batik Semarang juga lebih monokromatik, sehingga tampil indah setelah diolah.

Meskipun ada persamaan ciri-ciri motif batik Semarang dengan batik pesisir lainnya, namun jika diamati secara teliti, ada juga detil perbedaannya. Perbedaan itu dapat dilihat antara lain pada detil-detilnya.

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Pada umumnya batik Semarang berwarna dasar oranye kemerahan karena mendapat pengaruh dari China dan Eropa. Selain itu, motif dasar batik Semarang banyak dipengaruhi budaya China yang pada umumnya banyak menampilkan motif fauna yang lebih menonjol daripada flora. Misalnya merak, kupu-kupu, jago, cendrawasih, burung phunix, dan sebagainya. Motif-motif ini tidak terlepas dari pengaruh budaya China.

“Batik Semarang identik dengan warna terang, kalau yang zaman dulu bukan dari China, tapi Belanda itu arah warnanya merah bata. Kalau China lebih ke warna oranye. Jadi pengaruh negara lain ikut turut andil dalam pewarnaan batik Semarang,” kata ibu Umi saat ditemui okezone dalam dalam acara press conference di Hotel Pandanaran, Semarang, Jumat (2/5/2008).

Sementara itu, ciri-ciri motif batik Semarang menurut ibu Umi, tidak simbiolis seperti batik-batik di Surakarta dan Yogyakarta. “Kebanyakan batik Semarang diambil dari hal-hal yang ada di sekitar kita baik cerita legenda-legenda Semarang atau tentang makanan khas Semarang. Bahkan batik yang ada di zaman Belanda itu diangkat oleh kita dengan tema zaman Diponegoro. Jadi tidak terlalu simbiolis seperti batik Solo atau Yoyakarta,” bebernya.

Pengaruh budaya China dan Eropa, lanjutnya, turut andil dalam batik Semarang. Meski motifnya sangat beragam, ciri khas Semarang tetap ada. “Semarang diambil dari kata asem dan arang jadi asem yang jarang-jarang. Legenda-legenda lain menjadi tambahannya,” terang wanita keturunan Betawi yang sampai kini selalu concern dengan batik Semarang itu.

Adapun motif Semarang yang menonjolkan ikon kota Semarang, sambungnya, banyak menggunakan motif Tugu Muda, Lawang Sewu, burung kuntul, Wisma Perdamaian, Gereja Blenduk, bukit, dan laut. Semua motif tersebut, dijelaskan ibu Umi sebagai identitas kepribadian bangsa agar tidak terkikis oleh perluasan budaya global.

Sedangkan proses pembuatan batik tulis Semarang yang dapat dilakukan hingga mencapai tiga bulan itu, dimulai dari proses pembuatan, penggambaran hingga pewarnaan dan menghasilkan batik. Menurutnya, semakin sulit tingkat pengerjaan dan pemilihan kain yang digunakan, akan menentukan harga yang dibayar. Meski demikian, Anda dapat memeroleh batik Semarang mulai dari Rp30 ribu-Rp5 juta.

BANGGA DENGAN BATIK SEBAGAI WARISAN BUDAYA KHAS INDONESIA

Sekarang setiap orang merasa bangga memakai batik, semua saja tidak hanya yang tua tetapi juga yang muda. Batik memang sudah ada sejak lama di Indonesia, tetapi menjadi bertambah populer ketika United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Culture Organization(UNESCO) memberikan pengakuan dan mengesahkan secara resmi Batik Indonesia sebagai warisan budaya dunia (World Heritage) pada tanggal 2 Oktober 2009 dan tanggal tersebut dijadikan sebagai Hari Batik

Kain  yang memiliki ragam hias atau corak yang dibuat dengan canting dan cap ini diakui UNESCO sebagai salah satu warisan budaya dunia karena Batik Indonesia memiliki motif yang beragam dan memiliki makna filosofi yang mendalam. Selain itu penghargaan oleh UNESCO menjadikan Batik Indonesia sebagai warisan budaya dunia itu juga didasarkan karena pemerintah dan rakyat Indonesia dinilai telah melakukan berbagai langkah nyata untuk melindungi dan melestarikan warisan budaya itu secara turun-temurun.
Tentang sejarahnya, batik yang merupakan kerajinan yang memiliki nilai seni tinggi ini telah menjadi bagian dari budaya Indonesia, khususnya Jawa sejak zaman nenek moyang. Tidak ada catatan sejarah yang pasti dari mana kerajinan batik ini berasal, tetapi teknik membatik sudah dikenal sejak ribuan tahun silam dan berkembang di Jawa.
Tradisi membatik pada mulanya merupakan tradisi yang turun temurun yang dilakukan oleh perempuan-perempuan jawa pada masa lampau, sehingga kadang kala suatu motif dapat dikenali berasal dari batik keluarga tertentu. Beberapa motif batik dapat menunjukkan status pemakainya. Bahkan sampai saat ini, beberapa motif batik tadisional hanya dipakai oleh keluarga keraton Yogyakarta dan Surakarta.
Batik yang semula hanya ada di Jawa khususnya Jawa Tengah kemudian berkembang ke daerah-daerah lain di Indonesia. Setiap daerah memiliki keberagaman corak batik yang menjadi ciri khas setiap daerah. Antara daerah satu dengan yang lain memiliki corak dan motif yang berbeda. Ada batik Yogyakarta, Solo, Cirebon, Madura, Jepara, Tulungagung, Banyumas, Banten Pekalongan, Tasik, bahkan batik juga ada di luar Jawa seperti di Bali, Aceh, Palembang, Ambon, dan daerah lainnya.
Setiap daerah memiliki batik dengan ciri khasnya sendiri, itu sama seperti cerminan bangsa ini bahwa setiap daerah memiliki kebudayaan yang berbeda. Belajar dari batik, walau setiap daerah memiliki kekhasannya sendiri tetapi bisa disatukan dengan batik. Karena walau berbeda corak, motif atau warna tetapi dapat disatukan dengan kesamaan yang bernama batik. Hal tersebut membuat batik Indonesia menjadi lebih indah dengan keberagamannya, seperti halnya sebuah batik yang terlihat indah dengan warna-warni dan motif yang beragam. Semua orang bisa menikmati dan mengapresiasi batik sebagai budaya daerah yang menjadi budaya bangsa dengan rasa bangga dan saling menghargai.
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enis batik dilihat dari pembuatannya, ada batik tulis, batik lukis, bati cap dan batik print. Batik tulis adalah peninggalan teknik pembuatan batik yang paling tua, yaitu pembuatan batik dengan menghias kain dengan teksture dan corak batik menggunakan canting. Proses pembuatan batik tulis membutuhkan ketelatenan tingkat tinggi, karena dikerjakan dengan tangan dan langsung melukiskan corak atau motif di selembar kain. Untuk membuat batik tulis membutuhkan proses yang sangat lama, biasanya 2-3 bulan.
Yang kedua, batik lukis, yaitu teknik pembuatan batik  dengan langsung melukis pada selembar kain putih. Membuat batik lukis juga membutuhkan kesabaran dalam melukis berbagai corak dan menghasilkan hasil berbeda di setiap lembar kainnya. Lalu  teknik pembuatan batik yang cenderung lebih mudah dan cepat adalah batik cap dan batik print. Pembuatan batik cap yaitu dengan cara kain dihias dengan teksture dan corak batik yang dibentuk dengan cap  yang biasanya terbuat dari tembaga. Proses pembuatan batik jenis ini membutuhkan waktu kurang lebih 2-3 hari. Perkembangan teknologi ikut berpengaruh dalam kegiatan pembuatan batik. Batik print adalah batik yang corak dan motifnya dihasilkan melalui program komputer kemudian dicetak (print) pada selembar kain.
Di antara keempat jenis batik di atas, yaitu batik tulis, batik lukis, bati cap dan batik print memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan sendiri-sendiri. Batik yang memiliki nilai seni dan biasanya dihargai lebih mahal adalah batik tulis dan batik lukis, karena memang prosesnya yang lama dan membutuhkan kreativitas dan ketaletan yang tinggi sehingga bisa menghasilkan sebuah mahakarya seni yang tertuang dalam selembar kain. Sama seperti  kehidupan, semakin panjang prosesnya akan semakin banyak ilmu yang didapat. Sekarang orang cenderung menginginkan jalan pintas, dan mudah menyerah. Batik mengajarkan untuk ulet, pantang menyerah, sabar untuk menjadi yang terbaik. Begitu juga seperti corak atau motif batik yang cenderung lengkung, jarang yang lurus, itu mengambarkan hidup tidak selamanya datar-datar saja. Ada banyak tantangan dalam hidup dan harus bersiap menghadapinya. Ada banyak filosofi yang terkandung dari Batik Indonesia.
Batik telah tumbuh bersama tumbuhnya negeri ini menuju beradaban yang baru. Batik sebagai salah satu warisan budaya nenek moyang Indonesia berhasil tumbuh berkembang tidak tersisihkan dengan arus globalisasi mode dunia. Bahkan batik mampu menjadi tren berbusana untuk masyarakat lokal maupun dunia. Walau di negara lain juga bisa ditemui batik, misalnya di Malaysia, Thailand, India, Sri Langka, dan Iran, tetapi Batik Indonesia adalah batik yang paling terkenal di dunia.
Sejak pengakuan Batik Indonesia sebagai warisan budaya dunia oleh UNESCO, baju batik menjadi pakaian yang sering dipakai, bukan hanya karena bangga itu adalah warisan budaya tetapi juga karena batik memiliki nilai seni yang tinggi. Semua lembaga pemerintah atau swasta mewajibkan pegawainya untuk memakai batik setiap hari kamis sampai sabtu, begitupun juga dengan juga sekolahan yang juga menjadi batik sebagai seragam. Batik tidak hanya digunakan pada selembar kain untuk pakaian saja, tetapi batik berkembang ke berbagai kerajinan lain, seperti sepatu, tas yang menggunakan motif dan corak batik sebagai hiasannya.
Ketika semua orang merasa bangga dengan budaya dan kearifan lokalnya maka warisan budaya itu akan selalu hidup di tengah-tengahnya. Kita harus mampu belajar dari batik, jika batik sebagai warisan budaya masih tetap eksis dan diakui sebagai warisan budaya dunia, mengapa kearifan lokal tidak bisa? Tentunya bisa, kearifan lokal tinggalan dari nenek moyang kita yang syarat akan nilai-nilai dan budaya seperti halnya gotong royong, ramah tamah, saling menghargai dan membantu. Masih ada banyak warisan budaya Indonesia yang perlu dijaga kelestariannya sebagai jati diri dan identitas bangsa. Semua itu perlu kita wariskan kepada anak cucu sepertinya halnya batik.

 

Batik Nusantara Indonesia

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Sumatra

1 . batik Aceh

Aceh Batik producing colors that tend bold , red , green , yellow , pink . Aceh batik motifs usually found on the cloth symbolizes the philosophy of its society . Motive door for instance , measurements show that low level higher door . Figurative motifs become much less wind ventilation in each custom home , this motif presuppose that the Acehnese people tend to easily accept differences . Jeumpa flower – flower motif Urussanga , taken as abundant in aceh . Strong influence of Islam also colored batik motifs of them suckers shaped decorative motives , circle, and line.

2 . batik Bengkulu
Besurek cloth , Kanganga Batik ( Batik Rejang LEBONG ) . Besurek own special cloth nuance calligraphic motifs Jambi and Cirebon . Adoption is finally formed a special batik design Bengkulu . Kanganga a special batik motif that is the form of original letters Region. Besurek fabric motif that reads Arabic letters that can be read , the fabric is very sacred , especially in the application of custom bridal and ceremonial cloth to cover the body . This type of fabric usually shaped bridal veil women candidates who applied for the ritual pilgrimage to feed the ancestors . This kind of fabric can not be used indiscriminately .

3 . batik Jambi
Batik Kerinci ( Jambi West district ) . Jambi batik cloth policies given natural dyes from plants and fruits such as rubber wood and sagas . Special colors : red , yellow , blue , black . Jambi batik motifs are generally taken from nature, such as plants, animals and people everyday activity Jambi . The motive is a regular or called ceplokan . Jambi batik motifs are very well known is distant ship motif , ornate Kuau , durian broken , peacock ngeram , tampok mangosteen .

4 . Batik Course .
Field batik colors mostly black , yellow , red , purple . Banyumasan pattern , Indramayuan , Solo , Yogya .

5 . Batik Bali,
Batik batik in Riau there are unfortunately hide reportedly already disappeared and Batik Curtain . Batik scenes more vivid and bright colors like red , yellow , green . Riau batik patterns and motifs are flowers star , sosou , Cempaka , kenduduk That glimpse of batik in Indonesia . How in Java ? Oops , do not be asked again. He said , batik was born in Java . Javanese women in the past made ​​their skills in batik as livelihood , so in the past batik work is exclusively for female employment .
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West Java
1 . Banyumas batik
Normal Banyumas batik batik is often referred to Banyumasan . Banyumasan special color that is dark brown batik . Batik Banyumasan also dominant with black and golden yellow Banyumasan Typical batik batik style inspired from Yogya, Solo and Lasem . Banyumasan original batik cloth stamped back and forth .

2 . batik Ciamis
As for Ciamis Batik motif is a mixture of batik in Central Java and the influence of their own particular area Garutan motifs and colors .

3 . batik Cirebon
Batik Cirebon coast in there , Batik and Batik Trusmi Keratonan . Fabric colors are bright and cheerful outline , red , pink , sky blue , green extinct . Traditional batik colors centralized in three colors ie beige , black , and brown . Batik Keratonan usually brown or golden Soga .
Offshore batik influenced by Chinese culture . Motives are more independent , representing coastal communities are egalitarian . Many motives marked with pictures of flora and fauna such as marine and terrestrial animals , fish , trees , stripping leaves . Coastal Batik : Batik Pekalongan bethetan Kedung Wuni , Motive Gloves Cirebonan , Bethetan Demak .
Batik palace influenced by Hindus and Muslims. Motives tends to rock ( before the rock ) , car Yaris lion , dragon any further , parks and anyam arum mat. Batik Keratonan : Motive algae .
Two well-known motive Cirebon is Wadas and Mega Lion Pattern Cloudy . Lion motif patterns Wadas is officially the Sultanate of Cirebon ( Kasepuhan ) that form from the palace Kasepuhan Lion Barong . This motif is thick with shades of brown, black and beige .
Cloudy Mega motives that are not found in other areas , namely cloud -shaped motif that coagulate – blob that usually form the main frame of the picture . The motive is getting influence from palace – palace in Cirebon . This motif is rich in red, blue , violet , and gold .

4 . Garut batik or Garutan
Bright and full of color on the other side , a feature typical batik Garutan . Dominated by beige or ivory base color ( mix as ) , blue , red and quite Soga . The existence of purple on the pattern / design batik garutan .
Garutan batik motifs are Limar , Peacock Ngibing depicting a pair of peacocks were dancing . Then there is a demonstrated pattern of feather birds that long and dilengkung half circle . In addition, there is also adumanis slopes , slopes suuk , calung slopes , slopes leaves, narrow manggu , room , rub universe , and other peteuy slopes . Motifs which are presented as special features geometric shaped decorate modes . Other forms of Garut batik motif is the flora and fauna. Generally leads to a geometric form diagonal lines and Kawung or lozenge form .

5 . Indramayu Batik : Batik Dermayon , Batik Paoman
Batik initially Paoman only have two colors , ie the color of the cloth and color motif. Color is still traditional motifs , such as dark blue or dark brown . Now the colors in batik Paoman more diverse .
Features that stand out from Indramayu Batik variety of flora and fauna is expressed in a flat , with lots of curves and lines tight handcuffs ( riritan ) , white background and dark colors and many points made ​​by cocolan needle technique and form isen – isen ( sawut ) are short and stiff . Wadasan motive , iwak ketong , machete damaged . Batik motifs in Indramayu , many get great influence from the picture or calligraphy of the Arabic , Chinese or province of Central Java / East Java . Majority of batik motifs used in batik Indramayu describe fishing activities at sea.
Some batik motifs that characterize the special Coast Indramayu Batik motifs of which are Etong ( fish , shrimp , squid, crab , etc.) , Ship Fail , Ganggeng ( seaweed ) , Expand Gunda ( plants that live on the beach) , and Loksan . Special batik Indramayu also depicting everyday activities such as swastika motif , peacock motif Ngibing , Kencana Car Motif and Motif Teak Rombeng .
Geometric decorative motives in Indramayu Batik , among others : latticework , fluffy cotton , sijuring , door king , obar – Abir and Kawung .

6 . Batik or Batik SUMEDANG Kasumedangan
With the color red cloth , batik motif that is patterned ceplokan Kasumedangan main motive in the background vertical, horizontal or plain , and found symbolic meanings of the motifs .

7 . Tasikmalaya Batik : Batik Tasikan , Batik Karajinan ( Wurug ) , Batik Sukaraja / Sukapura
( Write special Batik Tasikmalaya ) color base cloth red, yellow , purple , blue , green , orange and Soga . And bright colors but still classic with blue dominance . Batik Sukapura : distinctively red, black , brown .
The motive is thick with nuance Parahyangan like orchids and birds , besides some peacock motif – ngibing , Cala – Culu , Banana – bali , Sapujagat , Awi Ngarambat .
Batik Lake has its own specificity that is motivated nature, flora , and fauna. Lake is similar to batik batik Garut just different from the color , more vivid color Batik Lake .
Oh Yeah , in Banten also own batik industry . I just almost forgot to explain.

8 . batik Banten
Special motive motive datulaya namely Banten , policy rhombus -shaped flowers and circles in the figure climbing tendril leaves with blue base color , variations on the motif – suckers suckers figure leaves gray on the bottom of the yellow cloth . Actually there are 75 decorative motives batik Banten Tumpal pliers and rhombus -shaped , but now only 12 motifs produced namely: datulaya , pamaranggen , pasulaman , kapurban , pancaniti , mandalikan , pasepen , surasowan , kawangsan , Duta , sabakingking , and pejantren .
Datulaya derived from the Datu and Laya . Datu means prince and Laya are homeless
Yuuk we moved to Central Java , do not get bored yah to continue to gather . In Central Java there Brebes batik or batik known by the name salem, KARANGANYAR batik , batik Klaten , Lamongan batik , batik Lasem , Pekalongan batik , batik Purworejo , Batik Semarang , Solo batik , batik and batik SRAGEN Tegal .
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JawaTengah
1 . Batik KARANGANYAR .
And expansion history of batik in the Regency KARANGANYAR experiencing growth that is from animal painting patterns and crop sooner or later switch to abstract motif that resembles a cloud , temple reliefs , wayang beber and so forth . Furthermore, through the merger with art decoration painting designs clothing , batik art emerged as we know it today.

2 . batik Lasem
Three State batik fabric beige base color , yellow . Dengn pattern color combination of red, blue , yellow , green . Patterns or motives of flora , fauna , the dragon

3 . batik Pekalongan
A variety of fabrics and bright colors , red , yellow , green , blue , pink, etc. . Color Batik Pekalongan who first appeared is red brick and brown . Pekalongan batik motif ancient motif that is when you first appear in Pekalongan batik . The motive is usually shaped Netherlands or the Dutch army with all their attributes , or even army tanks shaped motif . Motive Pekalongan now more likely to flower motif or motifs common buketan masayarakat mention .

4 . batik Semarang
Dominated by shades of brown and black , yellow and green with hoods motive stocks

5 . batik Solo
Dominated Saudagaran Soga batik color ( brown ) and dark blue . Solo batik motifs are sidomukti , sidoluruh , slopes. Kebumen batik motifs are trees , and birds . The motifs are prohibited prohibition is made ​​or motive : motive Barong Machete , Machete Udan Broken and lyrical .
Saudagaran bold batik design impressed the selection form , stilisasi on natural objects or animals , as well as color combinations . Batik saudagaran appear in Surakarta and Yogyakarta province .
6 . Tegal batik
Moor batik fabric base color black and white . Batik moor dominated by shades of brown and blue . Other special features of batik is colorful moor . Patterns or rengrengan big picture and widened . Many motives mangadaptasi from a variety of flora and fauna in the vicinity of life in the city of Tegal . Grudo motif ( Garuda ) that exhibit vivid colors shapes and wings of an eagle motif Gribigan woven bamboo with special design is quite dark in color . Other motives such as tiger claws , kebo site , mawur rice , ukel , rock bursts, pledge , cecek awe, LOL , pier, grandilan , tan hampered , buntoro , beard sack , coffee breaks , tea leaf pattern , teapot , white Cempaka , thread pedhot , inflorescences Pimple .

7 . batik Yogyakarta
Batik Tha Thit ( Gunung Kidul ) , Batik grimace ( Dusun Pijenan ) , Batik Bantulan ( Bantul ) Color white base fabric , fabric motifs dominated sepia , and black . Batik while Giriloyo black base color separation . There are 400 special Yogyakarta batik motifs .
Yogya batik motif classic motif that is a machete , geometric motifs , latticework motif , the motif of vines, water plant motifs , floral motifs , the motif of animals in the ecosystem, baboons angrem , Mendut , tumurun revelation , bali banana , etc. .
Common motif used : like sido Asih , keongan , ciptoning , curvature alus , Sidomulyo , mukti , sidomukti . Prohibited motive batik made ​​or prohibitions are : motives such as cement stucco and decorative motives peksi Slaugtering huk

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East Java
1 . batik Banyuwangi
Batik Elephant Policy Uling white cloth with elephant motif uling . Elephant uling uling the word elephant and that is a kind of snake that lives in water , a kind of eel . The feature is shaped like a question mark in the form of an elephant’s trunk philosophical and thus form uling . Other motifs found in Banyuwangi batik cloth that is butterfly – butterfly , suluran ( a type of seaweed ) , manggar ( nut / coconut flower )

2 . batik Madura
Tanjungbumi batik , Batik Genthong , Batik Color Crystals used mostly taken from nature . To red hearts taken from the cactus plant , dark green of the trees Mondo , and black color which is a mixture of red, green and red floral pattern rely Batik Madura unique foliage . In this area there are some of the oldest batik motifs ramok ie , Tasikmalaya , spread jagab , seaweed , okel and lintrik banner .

3 . batik Mojokerto
Batik Kalangbret bottom white and brown color pattern and dark blue . Majan and Simo batik , color red babarannya

4 . Pacitan Batik : Batik Parikesit
Pacitan special batik classic types like motifs belong Sidomulyo , finite answer was invariably , cement romodan fluffy – fluffy.

5 . batik Ponorogo
Batik Cap Blue Mori ( Batik Product) The famous Ponorogo batik making is because nilanya staining that do not fade . Ponorogo batik motifs are birds and flowers decorative motives

6 . batik Sidorajo
Sidoarjo batik rely on the yellow and red brick

7 . batik Tuban
Gedog batik batik color rather darkness Gedog gelapan . Dominated batik motifs of birds and flowers. Gedog batik motif that is panjiori , Kenongo uleran , ganggeng , krentil banner , banner oblique , and Komal banner . Last three motifs previously only worn by princes and flag motif batik indigo colored krentil believed to cure illness .

8 . batik Tulungagung
Sogan colored (brown ) and dark blue ( wedelan ) .
With the motive Lung (plants ) and flowers in the background or Dasa cecek that are characteristic of Batik Tulungagung . Special batik decorative motives Tulungagung district is unity of motive motive motive truntum with ceplok or Kotang . Until a new motif .

Meaning and History of Indonesian Batik Art

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Batik is writing an image on any media to form a style and art .
According to terms of the language itself Batik originated from the Javanese amba , meaning to write and point . The word batik refers to fabric with a pattern generated by the material the night ( wax) is applied to the fabric , so that resist the entry of dye ( dye ) , or in English is called ” wax – resist dyeing ” .
Awanzo BlogsMenurut batik hereditary history of our ancient ancestors said that batik ( batik making ) is a skill that later became a livelihood for adolescent and adult women at that time . At this time the condition of making batik is still on the level of manual ( hand ) or referred to as canthing . More times before finally entering the modern discovery of stamp batik making with media or machinery . For media use stamp batik making is possible roles of men plunge to participate in it .
For media batik fabric in the manufacturing process , there are several steps that must be done in batik making , including :
1 . Cutting raw material ( mori ) as needed .
2 . Mengetel : removes starch from mori mori by wetting with a solution : peanut oil , soda ash , tipol and water. Then mori diuleni after average diuleni sun dried and then dried again and again . This process is repeated until three weeks ago in the old wash thoroughly . This process so that the dye can seep into the fabric fibers perfectly .
3 . Nglengreng : Drawing directly on the fabric .
4 . Isen, Isen : give variation to the ornament ( pattern ) which has been in lengreng .
5 . Nembok : close ( ngeblok ) the base fabric that does not need to be colored .
6 . Ngobat : Coloring batik that has been bricked by means immersed in a dye solution
.
7 . Nglorod : Removing wax by boiling in boiling water ( finishing ) .
8 . Washing: after the wax off of fabric , then washed thoroughly and then dried .

 

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According to sejarahseni Indonesian culture, especially in the field of batik say that there are some opinions that developed the origin of Indonesian batik
Judging from the History of Culture
Prof . Dr. . R.M. Sutjipto Wirjosuparta stated that prior to the entry of Indian culture Indonesian nation has known techniques to create a batik cloth .
Aspects of Design Batik And Loax -resist process tehnique
Prof . Dr. . Alfred Steinmann argues that :
1 . There has been a kind of batik in Japan on Narayang dynasty called Ro – Kechr , in China in the Tang dynasty , in Bangkok and Turkestan Timur.Design batik from these areas are generally patterned geometric , Indonesian batik are more variations. Batik from South India ( new start was made in 1516 in Palekat and Gujarat ) is a type of wax batik painting popularly known as batik Palekat . Indian batik development peaked in 17-19 century .
2 . Regions in Indonesia are not affected Indian culture , there are also batik production , for example in Toraja , Sulawesi , Papua and Sumatra .
3 . There is no equation Indonesian batik ornaments with ornament batik India . For example : in India there is no tumpal , tree of life , caruda , and Isen, Isen cece and shredded . Both in terms of the history of Prof . M. And Prof. Yamin . Dr. . R.M. Sutjipto Wirjosuparta , argued that the batik in Indonesia has been around since the time of Srivijaya , the Chinese Sung Dynasty or Tang ( age 7-9 ) .

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Batik -producing cities , among others : Pekalongan , Solo , Yogyakarta , Lasem , Banyumas , Purbalingga , Surakarta , Cirebon , Tasikmalaya , Tulunggagung , Ponorogo , Jakarta , Tegal , Indramayu , Kudat, Garut , Kebumen , Purworejo , Klaten , Boyolali , Sidoarjo , Mojokerto , Gresik , Holy , and Winton .
History of batik is expected to begin in prehistoric times in the form of prabatik and achieving results in the time course of development of Hindu . According to the time of the Hindu culture of environmental art is the art of batik artwork Palace . With standard tradition continued in the Islamic era . Results that have been achieved in the days of Hindu , both technically and aesthetically , in the days of Islam developed and updated with new elements .
History of batik in Indonesia is closely linked with the development of the Majapahit kingdom and the spread of Islam in Java . In some records , the development of batik is mostly done in times of Mataram kingdom , then in the future work of Solo and Yogyakarta .
So this batik art in Indonesia has been known since the time of Majapahit work and growing the kingdom and the subsequent kings . The start spreading this batik art belongs to the people of Indonesia and Java in particular tribe is after the end of the eighteenth century or early nineteenth century . Produced batik batik is all until the early twentieth century and printed batik is known only after the world war unity out or around 1920 . The terms of the spread of Islam . Many areas in Java batik centers are areas Batik students and later became a tool of economic perjaungan by Muslim traders figures against the Dutch economy .
Batik art is art image on the fabric for clothing that became one of the cultural keluaga Indonesian kings of old. Initially batik is done only limited in the palace alone and proceeds to dress the king and family and his followers . Because many of the followers of the king who lived outside the palace , the art of batik was brought by them out palace and worked in place of each .
Long batik art was imitated by the people nearest and subsequently expanded into the work of women in the household to fill his spare time . Furthermore , batik clothes that used only the royal family , then became a popular folk clothes , both women and men . White fabric that is used when it is the result of homespun .
Medium coloring materials used consist of plants native to Indonesia who made ​​himself among others of : noni tree , tall , soga , indigo , and materials made ​​from soda ash soda , as well as salts made ​​from tanahlumpur .
Majapahit
Batik has become a culture in which the royal Majahit , pat the area traced in Mojokerto and Tulong Court . Mojoketo is an area that is closely connected with Majapahit kingdom during the first and origin of the name have anything to do with Majapahit Majokerto . Relation to the development of original batik Majapahit Agung is growing in Tulung history of batik developments in this area , can be extracted from the relic in the age of the Majapahit kingdom . At that time the area vBulletin partly composed of swamp in the history of the area known as Bonorowo , which at the time of Majapahit bekembangnya area was ruled by a Duke benama Kalang , and unwilling to submit to the kingdom of Majapahit .
Told that the police action launched by Majapahati , Duke Kalang supposedly killed in the fighting around the village are now reportedly named Kalangbret . Thus the army officers and keluara Majapahit kingdom who settled and lived in the region that is now named Bonorowo or vBulletin , among others also bring original art to make batik .
Batik in Mojokerto area now contained in Kwali , Kirkcaldy , Betero and Sidomulyo . Outside the Mojokerto regency is in Jombang . At the end of the nineteenth century there were several people known batik in Mojokerto , the materials used at that time white cloth woven by himself and drugs from soga jambal batik , noni , indigo tom , height and so on .
Drugs known abroad the new postwar world unity being sold by Chinese traders in Mojokerto . Printed batik is known along with the entry of drugs from abroad batik . Cap made ​​in Bangkil and entrepreneurs can buy batik Mojokerto, Sidoarjo Porong market , this Porong Market before the economic crisis the world is known as a bustling market , where the results of production and Jetis Sidoarjo batik Kedungcangkring lot sold . Time of economic crisis , batik entrepreneurs participate Mojoketo paralyzed , because most entrepreneurs small business. Pembatikan events arising after the crisis back to Japan to Indonesia , and the time of the Japanese occupation of batik activities paralyzed again . Pembatikan activity reappears after the revolution which has become a regional Mojokerto occupation .
Characteristic of batik Kalangbret of Mojokerto is almost equal to the output of batik – batik of Yogyakarta , which is essentially its pattern of white and light brown color and dark blue . Are known since more than a century ago where Majan and Simo batik village . The village also has a history as a relic from the days of Prince Diponegoro war in 1825 .
Although batik is known since antiquity , but the development of Batik Majapahait began to spread rapidly since the area of Central Java Surakarta and Yogyakata , in the era of the kingdom in this area . It appears that the development of batik in Mojokerto and subsequent Supreme Tulung more dipenagruhi Solo and Yogyakarta batik style .
In the wake of the clash between the Dutch colonial army with troops prince Diponegoro then most of Kyai Mojo troops withdrew towards the east and until now the Majan . Since Dutch colonial times up to the time of independence the village of village status Merdikan Majan ( Special Region ) , and the village head of a priest whose status Uirun – temurun.Pembuatan Majan Batik is an instinct ( relic ) of the art of making batik Diponegoro war era .
Babaran color Majan and Simo batik is unique because babarannya bright red color ( of skin Noni ) and other colors of the tom . As a batik Setra since time immemorial village area is also famous Sembung , the batik entrepreneurs mostly from Sala that vBulletin came in at the end of XIX century . Only now there are still some families who settled batik from Sala Sembung area . Aside from places proficiency level are also areas of batik in Psychology and also there are some in Kediri , but the nature of most batik craft and household babarannya batik .
The spread of Islamic era
History of batik in other areas of East Java is in Ponorogo , whose story is related to the spread of Islam in this region . History of Batik . Mentioned problem areas Ponorogo batik art is closely connected with the development of Islamic religion and kingdoms first. That said , in Batoro Katong area , there is a descendant of the Majapahit empire named Raden Raden Patah sister of the Katong . Batoro Katong is what brought Islam to Ponorogo and petilasan that there now is a mosque Patihan Wetan area .
Selanjutanya developments , in Ponorogo , in the area there is a boarding school Tegalsari that nurtured Kyai Hasan Basri or known as Kyai Agung Tegalsari . This Tegalsari pesantren teach religion other than Islam also teaches constitutional sciences , sciences and literature of war . A disciple of the famous literary field is Raden Tegalsari Ronggowarsito . Kyai Hasan Basri was taken into law by the king Kraton Solo.
At that time the art of batik was limited in the palace . Therefore Solo palace daughter became the wife of Kyai Hasan Basri then brought to Tegalsari and followed by escort – escorts . besides that there are many families learn dipesantren the court of Solo . This event is to bring art out of the palace bafik toward Ponorogo . Young people who are educated in this Tegalsari when it came out , the community will donate his batik dharma in areas kepamongan and religion .
Long batik areas that we can see now is that Kepatihan Wetan Kauman area now and from here spread to the villages Ronowijoyo , Mangunsuman , Kertosari , Setono , Cokromenggalan , Duchy , Nologaten , Bangunsari , force- , and Ngunut Banyudono . At that time the drugs used in the batik is made ​​in their own country of timber , among others ; tom tree , noni , high wood . While homemade kainputihnyajugamemakai material of woven carrying. Bam import white cloth known in Indonesia about the end of the 19th century .
Batik -making in the new Ponorogo known after the first world war brought on by a Chinaman named Kwee Seng from Banyumas . Regional Ponorogo early 20th century in the famous batik indigo coloring that does not fade and that is why entrepreneurs from Banyumas and Solo batik provide employment to many entrepreneurs in Ponorogo batik . As a result of the familiar printed batik production tops Ponorogo after World War until the outbreak of the Second World War with the famous batik is batik cap rough blue mori . Rough Ponorogo batik market became known throughout Indonesia .
Solo and Yogyakarta Batik
Of work – in Solo and Yogyakarta royal sekitamya 17.18 and 19 centuries , batik then widespread , particularly in the area of ​​Java. Batik initially just a hobby of the royal family in the ornate through clothing . But subsequent developments , community batik pleh perdagamgan developed into a commodity .
Solo Batik is famous for its style and its traditional batik pattern in the stamp and in the process of batik he wrote . The materials used for staining still remains a lot of use of domestic materials such as Java soga already known since the first. The pattern remained among others, famous and Sidoluruh Sidomukti .
While the origins of batik Yogyakarta area known since the kingdom of Mataram to -I with a Panembahan Senopati any raj . The first area is the village of batik Plered . Batik at that time confined within the royal family is done by the women helpers queen . From here batik work extends the first trap on the other the wife of the royal family of courtiers and soldiers . At the official ceremony of the royal family empire both men and women wear clothes with batik and striated kombonasi . Therefore, this kingdom received a visit from the people and the people interested in the clothes worn by the royal family and imitated by the people and finally meluaslah batik out of the palace walls .
As a result of the war between the ancient time kings of the family as well as between the Dutch colonial time ago , so many royal families who were displaced and settled in areas of new inter alia to Banyumas , Pekalongan , and stricken East Ponorogo , vBulletin and sebagainy a. Meluasny a local batik to the stricken areas , according to the historical development of Indonesian struggle began the 18th century . Royal families who were displaced is that developed all over the island of Java batik existing and evolving according to the nature and the new area .
Diponegoro war against the Netherlands , urged the prince and his family and his followers had to leave the area of the kingdom. They then spread towards the East and the West . Then in the new areas that the family and followers of Prince Diponegoro to develop batik .
East to Solo and Yogyakarta batik batik improve the existing pattern in Mojokerto and Tulong Court . It also spread to Gresik , Surabaya and Madura . Looking westward bang developing batik in Banyumas , Pekalongan , Tegal , Cirebon .
The development of Batik in Other Cities
Development of batik in Banyumas centered in the area Sokaraja taken by the followers of the Prince Diponegero after Selesa – inya war in 1830 , their most – ap menet Banyumas area . Followers were known at that time and he was Najendra develop batik dyed in Sokaraja . Materials used mori homespun results and drugs used color additives tom tree , pace and noni trees that gives the red color yellow artificiality .
Eventually Sokaraja batik spread to the people and at the end of XIX century is directly related to the area of Solo batik and Ponorogo . Areas in Banyumas batik has been known since long ago with motifs and colors in particular and now called batik Banyumas . After the world war started batik unity is also done by China in addition to their trade batik material . .
Similar to batik in Pekalongan . The followers of Prince Diponegoro who settled in this area then develop sekitara batik business in this coastal area , which is not only in their own area of ​​Pekalongan , batik grew rapidly in Buawaran , Pekajangan and Wonopringgo . The existence of batik in these areas almost simultaneously with batik other areas is about XIX century . Batik development in areas outside of Yogyakarta and Solo apart is closely connected with the history of the development of the kingdom of Yogyakarta and Solo.
Widespread batik out of the palace after the end of the Diponegoro war and the royal family moved many stricken areas outside Yogya and Solo because it did not want its partnership with the colonial government . The royal family brings new followers was stricken on the ground and continued batik craft and then into work for a living .
Batik style in this new area is also adapted to the circumstances surrounding area . Pekalongan in terms of the process and designya much influenced by batik of Demak . Until the early twentieth century known batik process batik is the morinya materials domestically as well as most imports . After the world war a new unity known batik fabrication and use of foreign drugs made ​​in Germany and the UK .
At the beginning of the 20th century, first made known to produce Pekajangan is weaving the yarn spun himself stagen and simply . In recent years new known batik is done by the people who worked the weaving sector . Growth and more rapid development of batik weaving stagen and never sugar factory workers in Wonopringgo and Tirto ran into batik companies , because wages are higher than the sugar factory .
Tegal batik being recognized at the end of the nineteenth century and that the time used homemade taken from plants : pace / noni , indigo , soga wood and homespun fabric . Tegal batik was first color is Sogan and babaran gray after a known indigo plant , and then increased to a red – blue color . Tegal batik market when it’s already out of the region such as West Java taken by the entrepreneurs in the foot and they are the ones who developed the historically batik in Tasik and Kudat as well as other immigrants from the cities of Central Javanese batik .
In the early twentieth century was known mori import and import of new drugs known postwar world unity . Batik entrepreneurs in Tegal mostly weak in capital and raw materials obtained from the Pekalongan and with credit and batik are sold in China that provides the raw material of credit . Time of economic crisis Tegal batik – batik actively involved flagging and new back about 1934 to the beginning of the second world war . Time Japan entered dead again batik activities .
Thus pila Purworedjo history of batik in conjunction with the presence of batik in Kebumen which came from Yogyakarta around XI century . Batik developments in Purworedjo than in Kebumen faster in Kebumen . Similarly, the same production Yogya and other Banyumas .
Whereas in Bayat , Klaten District Tembayat Kebumen – that is located approximately 21 km east of the town of Klaten . Bayat is a village located at the foot of the mountain but the land barren and minuses . These areas include environmental Surakarta and Klaten regency and history of batik here certainly closely connected with the history of the Surakarta royal palace in past . Bayat Village is now a pertilasan which can be visited by people in certain times of the tomb of Sunan Bayat on the mountain Jabarkat . So Bayat batik village has existed since the time of first job . Batik entrepreneurs in Bayat had most of handicrafts and batik workers in Solo .
While batik in Kebumen known around the beginning of the nineteenth century brought by immigrants from Yogya in order propagation of Islam , among others, that are known are: PenghuluNusjaf . He is a developing batik in the first place settled Kebumen and is the eastern Lukolo time now and there are also relics of the mosque over his business . Kebumen first batik process called teng – brother or next and last was the last process is done in Banyumas / Solo. Around the beginning of XX century pattern used to make turmeric capnya made ​​of wood . Kebumen motives are : trees , artificial bird . Other materials used are trees pace , kemudu and indigo tom .
Use of drugs imported in Kebumen known around 1920 that was introduced by Bank Rakyat Indonesia officials who finally left the homemade ingredients , as it saves time . Usage cap of known copper circa 1930 brought by Purnomo of Yogyakarta . Area is batik village in Kebumen : Watugarut , Tanurekso that many and there are several other villages .
Seen with relics of the present and the stories passed down from earlier , the estimated area known since the time of Tasikmalaya batik heritage Tarumanagara where they are now is the number of trees there are useful Tarum obtained un – tuk that time batik making . Heritage village which still exists today it is the crude batik : batik handicraft famous Wurug , Sukapura , Mangunraja , Maronjaya and Tasikmalaya city .
Formerly the center of government and the village is famous crowd Sukapura , Indihiang which lies just off the town of Tasikmalaya now . About the end of the seventeenth century and early eighteenth century a result of the war between the kingdoms in Central Java , many of the residents of the area : Tegal , Pekalongan , Ba – nyumas and Holy stricken wander west and settled in Kudat and Tasikmalaya . Most of them are batik entrepreneurs area and heading towards the West while trade batik . With the arrival of new residents , both wearing pembutan Be known hereafter Soga who came from Central Java . Tasikmalaya batik production now is a mix of original batik Pekalongan , Tegal , Banyumas , Holy various patterns and colors .
Batik is known around Kudat XIX century after the completion of the Diponegoro war , where followers of Diponegoro much left Yogyakarta , heading south . Some have settled Banyumas areas and some have proceeded to the south and settled in Kudat and Tasikmalaya now . They are gone down with a keluargany and settle into a new place and the population continues to live and work procedures . Some of them are experts in the craft of batik as household work for women . Eventually this work could be developed on the surrounding residents due to daily life or family relations . The materials used for the result of homespun fabric and paint materials made ​​from trees such as noni , tom tree , and so on .
Kudat batik motif result is a mixture of batik in Central Java and its own regional influence , especially motifs and colors scrape . Until the early twentieth century batik in Kudat growing little by little , of his own needs into market production . Being in the area of ​​Cirebon batik there kaintannya with aerah kingdoms , namely Kanoman , Kasepuahn and Keprabonan . The main source of batik Cirebon , the case is the same as in Yogyakarta and Solo. Batik appears the palace , and carried out by the courtiers who resides outside the palace . Ancient kings delighted with the paintings and prior known cotton yarn , the painting was placed on palm leaves . It happened around the XIII century . It has something to do with batik motifs on the fabrics . Characteristic of batik Cirebonan large part motivated by images of forests and wildlife symbol . While the sea motif because the nature of thought influenced by China , where the sultanate of Cirebon editing the first ever Chinese princess . Sementra Cirebonan pictorial batik garuda as influenced by Yogya and Solo batik motifs .
By UNESCO’s recognition of Indonesian Batik
On October 2, 2009 , the United Nations agencies in the field of education and culture ( UNESCO ) recognized batik as an Indonesian national culture results . World finally recognize batik is one of the heritage of mankind is generated by the nation of Indonesia.
UNESCO recognition is given to the reasons for the Government and people of Indonesia had committed as many concrete steps to protect and preserve batik generation to generation . And also the diversity of batik in Indonesia who possess a lot of deep philosophical meaning .

Keunikan Motif Batik Solo

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Seni pewarnaan kain dengan teknik pencegahan pewarnaan menggunakan malam adalah salah satu bentuk seni kuno. Penemuan di Mesir menunjukkan bahwa teknik ini telah dikenal semenjak abad ke-4 SM, dengan diketemukannya kain pembungkus mumi yang juga dilapisi malam untuk membentuk pola. Di Asia, teknik serupa batik juga diterapkan di Tiongkok semasa Dinasti T’ang (618-907) serta di India dan Jepang semasa Periode Nara (645-794). Di Afrika, teknik seperti batik dikenal oleh Suku Yoruba di Nigeria, serta Suku Soninke dan Wolof di Senegal. Di Indonesia, batik dipercaya sudah ada semenjak zaman Majapahit, dan menjadi sangat populer akhir abad XVIII atau awal abad XIX. Batik yang dihasilkan ialah semuanya batik tulis sampai awal abad XX dan batik cap baru dikenal setelah Perang Dunia I atau sekitar tahun 1920-an.

Walaupun kata “batik” berasal dari bahasa Jawa, kehadiran batik di Jawa sendiri tidaklah tercatat. G.P. Rouffaer berpendapat bahwa tehnik batik ini kemungkinan diperkenalkan dari India atau Srilangka pada abad ke-6 atau ke-7. Di sisi lain, J.L.A. Brandes (arkeolog Belanda) dan F.A. Sutjipto (arkeolog Indonesia) percaya bahwa tradisi batik adalah asli dari daerah seperti Toraja, Flores, Halmahera, dan Papua. Perlu dicatat bahwa wilayah tersebut bukanlah area yang dipengaruhi oleh Hinduisme tetapi diketahui memiliki tradisi kuna membuat batik.

G.P. Rouffaer juga melaporkan bahwa pola gringsing sudah dikenal sejak abad ke-12 di Kediri, Jawa Timur. Dia menyimpulkan bahwa pola seperti ini hanya bisa dibentuk dengan menggunakan alat canting, sehingga ia berpendapat bahwa canting ditemukan di Jawa pada masa sekitar itu.
Legenda dalam literatur Melayu abad ke-17, Sulalatus Salatin menceritakan Laksamana Hang Nadim yang diperintahkan oleh Sultan Mahmud untuk berlayar ke India agar mendapatkan 140 lembar kain serasah dengan pola 40 jenis bunga pada setiap lembarnya. Karena tidak mampu memenuhi perintah itu, dia membuat sendiri kain-kain itu. Namun sayangnya kapalnya karam dalam perjalanan pulang dan hanya mampu membawa empat lembar sehingga membuat sang Sultan kecewa. Oleh beberapa penafsir,who? serasah itu ditafsirkan sebagai batik.
Dalam literatur Eropa, teknik batik ini pertama kali diceritakan dalam buku History of Java (London, 1817) tulisan Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. Ia pernah menjadi Gubernur Inggris di Jawa semasa Napoleon menduduki Belanda. Pada 1873 seorang saudagar Belanda Van Rijekevorsel memberikan selembar batik yang diperolehnya saat berkunjung ke Indonesia ke Museum Etnik di Rotterdam dan pada awal abad ke-19 itulah batik mulai mencapai masa keemasannya. Sewaktu dipamerkan di Exposition Universelle di Paris pada tahun 1900, batik Indonesia memukau publik dan seniman.
Semenjak industrialisasi dan globalisasi, yang memperkenalkan teknik otomatisasi, batik jenis baru muncul, dikenal sebagai batik cap dan batik cetak, sementara batik tradisional yang diproduksi dengan teknik tulisan tangan menggunakan canting dan malam disebut batik tulis. Pada saat yang sama imigran dari Indonesia ke Persekutuan Malaya juga membawa batik bersama mereka.
Gb. Batik Keraton
Batik Kraton awal mula dari semua jenis batik yang berkembang di Indonesia. Motifnya mengandung makna filosofi hidup. Batik-batik ini dibuat oleh para putri kraton dan juga pembatik-pembatik ahli yang hidup di lingkungan kraton. Pada dasarnya motifnya terlarang untuk digunakan oleh orang “biasa” seperti motif Parang Barong, Parang Rusak termasuk Udan Liris, dan beberapa motif lainnya.

Pengertian dan Sejarah Batik Solo

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Dari kerjaan-kerajaan di Solo dan Yogyakarta sekitamya abad 17,18 dan 19, batik kemudian berkembang luas, khususnya di wilayah Pulau Jawa. Awalnya batik hanya sekadar hobi dari para keluarga raja di dalam berhias lewat pakaian. Namun perkembangan selanjutnya, pleh masyarakat batik dikembangkan menjadi komoditi perdagamgan.

Batik Solo terkenal dengan corak dan pola tradisionalnya batik dalam proses cap maupun dalam batik tulisnya. Bahan-bahan yang dipergunakan untuk pewarnaan masih tetap banyak memakai bahan-bahan dalam negeri seperti soga Jawa yang sudah terkenal sejak dari dahulu. Polanya tetap antara lain terkenal dengan “Sidomukti” dan “Sidoluruh”.
Sedangkan Asal-usul pembatikan didaerah Yogyakarta dikenal semenjak kerajaan Mataram ke-I dengan raj any a Panembahan Senopati. Daerah pembatikan pertama ialah didesa Plered. Pembatikan pada masa itu terbatas dalam lingkungan keluarga kraton yang dikerjakan oleh wanita-wanita pembantu ratu. Dari sini pembatikan meluas pada trap pertama pada keluarga kraton lainnya yaitu istri dari abdi dalem dan tentara-tentara. Pada upacara resmi kerajaan keluarga kraton baik pria maupun wanita memakai pakaian dengan kombonasi batik dan lurik. Oleh karena kerajaan ini mendapat kunjungan dari rakyat dan rakyat tertarik pada pakaian-pakaian yang dipakai oleh keluarga kraton dan ditiru oleh rakyat dan akhirnya meluaslah pembatikan keluar dari tembok kraton.
Akibat dari peperangan waktu zaman dahulu baik antara keluarga raja-raja maupun antara penjajahan Belanda dahulu, maka banyak keluarga-keluarga raja yang mengungsi dan menetap didaerah-daerah baru antara lain ke Banyumas, Pekalongan, dan kedaerah Timur Ponorogo, Tulungagung dan sebagainy a. Meluasny a daerah pembatikan ini sampai kedaerah-daerah itu menurut perkembangan sejarah perjuangan bangsa Indonesia dimulai abad ke-18. Keluarga-keluarga kraton yang mengungsi inilah yang mengembangkan pembatikan seluruh pelosok pulau Jawa yang ada sekarang dan berkembang menurut alam dan daerah baru itu.
Perang Pangeran Diponegoro melawan Belanda, mendesak sang pangeran dan keluarganya serta para pengikutnya harus meninggalkan daerah kerajaan. Mereka kemudian tersebar ke arah Timur dan Barat. Kemudian di daerah-daerah baru itu para keluarga dan pengikut pangeran Diponegoro mengembangkan batik.
Ke Timur batik Solo dan Yogyakarta menyempurnakan corak batik yang telah ada di Mojokerto serta Tulung Agung. Selain itu juga menyebar ke Gresik, Surabaya dan Madura. Sedang ke arah Barat batik berkem-bang di Banyumas, Pekalongan, Tegal, Cirebon.